Modern humans inherited viral defenses from Neanderthals

It made much more sense for modern humans to just borrow the already adapted genetic defences from Neanderthals

Researchers think people initially collaborated with Neanderthals in Eurasia, in the wake of relocating out of Africa 70,000 years back. Once they met up thousands of years later, though, the Neanderthal variety was acquired by humans and quickly spread. As the researchers report today (October 4) in Cell, genes for virus-recognizing proteins are relatively common among the tiny percentage of modern humans' DNA that originated in Neanderthals. As a result of these ancient trysts, many modern Europeans and Asians today harbor about 2 percent of Neanderthal DNA in their genomes. "We believe that resistance to specific RNA viruses provided by these Neanderthal sequences was likely a big part of the reason for their selective benefits".

"Modern humans and Neanderthals are so closely related that it really wasn't much of a genetic barrier for these viruses to jump", said Enard, who is now an assistant professor at the University of Arizona. Then the researchers cross-referenced the list with the database of the DNA of Neanderthal and identified 152 total fragment. Are viruses responsible for many human diseases, the most famous representative of them is the human immunodeficiency virus.

The paper's authors, Dmitri Petrov of Stanford University and his former postdoc, David Enard of the University of Arizona, note that the H. sapiens who left Africa for Europe tens of thousands of years ago would likely have encountered pathogens that Neanderthals had always been exposed to.

In their new study, published online October 4 in the journal Cell, the scientists show that the genetic defenses that Neanderthals passed to us were against RNA viruses, which encode their genes with RNA, a molecule that's chemically similar to DNA. "Some of the Neanderthals had adaptive mutations that gave them advantages against these pathogens, and they were able to pass some of these mutations on to modern humans", explains Enard, who completed the work while he was a postdoctoral researcher at Stanford University.

In this scenario, Neanderthals bequeathed to modern humans not only infectious viruses but also the genetic tools to combat the invaders, they said.

Since viruses can not replicate on their own, they depend on the proteins found in cells.

In 2016, while working at Stanford University with scientist Dmitri Petrov, Enard found about 33% of all protein adjustments in the human genome were activated by viral contaminations. Other studies have shown that the ancestors of Europeans and East Asians, probably, differently have interacted with Neanderthals. "Our research aims to understand why that was the case".

"One of the things that population geneticists have wondered about is why we have maintained these stretches of Neanderthal DNA in our own genomes", Enard adds.

According to a new study, two groups Gann exchanged diseases and genes that protect against these diseases.

The study concluded that interbreeding between ancient humans and Neanderthals provided us the immunity against some ancient viral epidemics.

"RNA is very fragile and gets degraded fast, so it's hard to learn much about ancient diseases that were caused by RNA-based viruses", he says.

Related News:

  • Nintendo patents a case that transforms your phone into a Game Boy

    Nintendo patents a case that transforms your phone into a Game Boy

    When the buttons are pressed, a conductive sheet is used on the inside to ensure fully functional input on the touchscreen. Rather it looks like folio case which offers the classic Game Boy look and functionality.
    Canada Added 63,300 Jobs in September

    Canada Added 63,300 Jobs in September

    Average hourly wages, a figure watched closely by the central bank, rose by 2.2 percent in September from a year earlier. At this time previous year , the economy had added 273,300 jobs - a pace that was largely seen as unsustainable.
    Isaac Dogboe Returns To Ghana On Monday

    Isaac Dogboe Returns To Ghana On Monday

    The win earned him the right to challenge then-unbeaten titleholder Jessie Magdaleno, who is promoted by Top Rank. ET) at the Hulu Theater at Madison Square Garden in NY . "We have signed a new four year deal with Top Rank".
  • Margot Robbie to Star in 'Barbie' Movie

    Margot Robbie to Star in 'Barbie' Movie

    The Suicide Squad star's relationship with WB has been nothing but golden with followup Birds Of Prey adding cast members now. Robbie is coming off her Oscar-nominated role in " I, Tonya ", where she played infamous figure skater Tonya Harding .
    Serena, Federer headline Hopman Cup lineup

    Serena, Federer headline Hopman Cup lineup

    Two-time Grand Slam champion Garbine Muguruza and former world No.3 David Ferrer will make their debut for Spain . Ebden and Barty will certainly be eager to win it all for the host nation in the last-ever Hopman Cup edition.
    CAQ would invoke notwithstanding clause to ban religious symbols from the workplace

    CAQ would invoke notwithstanding clause to ban religious symbols from the workplace

    Over the summer, Ontario Premier Doug Ford said he would use the notwithstanding clause to slash the size of Toronto's city council.
  • Klopp admits Liverpool haven't figured out Man City formula

    Klopp admits Liverpool haven't figured out Man City formula

    I cannot understand how we can ignore them. "They are much more proven winners than we are". It is a completely normal situation, nothing to worry about and I am relaxed about it".
    Naomi Osaka into China Open quarters, Zhang upsets Kerber

    Naomi Osaka into China Open quarters, Zhang upsets Kerber

    The third seed said of the match: "I was not feeling the best at the beginning of the match, but then I was playing better and better.
    India signs $5 billion deal for Russian air defense systems

    India signs $5 billion deal for Russian air defense systems

    An 11-page joint statement made only passing mention, saying that "the two sides welcomed the conclusion of the contract". Putin and Prime Minister Narendra Modi held a brief meeting on Thursday, India's External Affairs Ministry said.
  • MBS: Saudi Arabia has nothing to hide about Jamal Khashoggi

    Saudi Arabia's Ambassador to Ankara Adel Serajedin Merdad has told Turkish officials that he had no information about Khashoggi. When asked if he is facing any charges in Saudi Arabia, bin Salman said: "Actually, we need to know where Jamal is first".
    Hong Kong refuses to renew visa of Asia editor of Financial Times

    Hong Kong refuses to renew visa of Asia editor of Financial Times

    The government's refusal to renew Mallet's visa has been met with outrage from fellow journalists and human rights workers. The government even requested Facebook to close the party's page, but the U.S. social networking giant is yet to do so.
    Twitter Brings Its 'Data Saver' Feature to Android and iOS

    Twitter Brings Its 'Data Saver' Feature to Android and iOS

    Alternatively, if it's been invading your life and you want to take back control, here's how to delete your Twitter account . It gives users the option to scroll through Twitter without burning through as much data as they usually would.

Most liked

Sebastian Vettel holding no grudges as Ferrari tyre gamble backfires
He will regain one position via a penalty for Esteban Ocon. The rain then came before he could set a competitive time. Anything could happen tomorrow, tomorrow's a new day.

Tropical development likely in the Gulf by early next week
The National Hurricane Center reported Saturday morning that tropical development is at 70 percent within the next 48 hours and 90 percent over the next five days.

Twitter Users Gag Over Melania Trump's Clueless Colonial Pith Helmet In Africa
The First Lady laughed on Friday as she admitted she's told her husband to put the phone down amid one of his famed rants. The first lady was captured taking pictures of animals on her iPhone and peering through binoculars.

US Navy planning global force showdown with China
China last month refused a US warship entry to Hong Kong and Beijing's top naval officer canceled a high-level meeting with his USA counterpart.

Watch Klopp's Man City preview
Since then Manchester City have achieved three Premier League crowns, a feat that Liverpool have not yet managed to complete. The Reds host City at Anfield on Sunday , kick-off is scheduled for 16:30 (GMT).

Wilder and Fury at each other again
This final insult caused Wilder to lunge across the stage, but the WBC champion was held back by his team and security. For boxers it was the last chance to make a show before his meeting in the ring and they took it off.

False widow spider infestations close four east London schools
False Widow Spiders, the UK's most poisonous arachnid, are dark-coloured with globular bodies and range from 9.5 to 14 mm in size. Lister Community School, Star Primary, Ellen Wilkinson Primary and Rokeby secondary school faced being closed for weeks.

Opera icon Montserrat Caballe, who duetted with Freddie Mercury on Barcelona, dies
The Spanish opera singer whose song with Freddie Mercury became the featured single of the Barcelona Olympics has passed away. Caballe died early on Saturday at Hospital San Pau in Barcelona, hospital spokesman Abraham del Moral said.

Canelo Alvarez says he’ll fight Rocky Fielding next at super middleweight
Fielding is now 27-1 with his only defeat against current WBA Super Middleweight Super champion Callum Smith back in 2015. Canelo's fights had been a staple of HBO PPV however HBO have chose to pull out of boxing coverage.

New Zealand fines travelers who won’t unlock secure devices
But a new twist has been added with the enactment of New Zealand's most recent customs law: compelled password production. When we covered this past year , customs officials were already seizing devices and performing invasive searches.

Collins Announces Support for Kavanaugh, Ensuring Confirmation
It comes after the US Senate pushed Brett Kavanaugh's nomination to the Supreme Court past a key procedural hurdle. Which, maybe! As I said above, nothing is official until the final confirmation vote happens on Saturday.

Attacker sought in sexual assault of woman in Brooklyn
A 27-year-old Australian woman living in Brooklyn was sexually assaulted in the early hours of Thursday morning. She fights back, kicking him, at which point he knocks her to the ground and touches her inappropriately.

Samsung reports record earnings - and Apple’s a big reason why
The guidance is above analyst estimates for the period, boosted by its thriving chip business. Samsung is due to publish a detailed third quarter earnings later this month.

Susan Collins will vote to confirm Brett Kavanaugh to the Supreme Court
In a second tweet , she cautioned that she was "not making any announcements" but was "deeply disappointed" in Collins' vote. Christine Blasey Ford that Judge Kavanaugh groped her and attempted to rape her when he was drunk at a high school party.

Centre challenges non-BJP states to cut Value-Added Tax on fuel
On Thursday, some tweeters felt that the idea of simultaneous polls, pushed by the Modi government , was anti-people. States saw their Value-Added Tax revenue rise from Rs 1,37,157 crore in 2014-15 to Rs 1,84,091 crore in 2017-18.